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Prototype and Scriptaculous

OK, it's time that I come out with it: I've switch to using the prototype and script.aculo.us ("scriptaculous") JavaScript/AJAX frameworks. For the longest time I've sworn my allegiance to manual AJAX/DOM manipulation as I've always found it to be the absolute most powerful way to get the job done correctly, but as it turns out prototype/scriptaculous provide an incredible level of simplification without taking any of your power from you.  It's the ONLY AJAX framework I found that didn't suck.  Though I'm a .NET developer, I can't  the Microsoft ASP.NET AJAX ("Atlas") extensions.  Except for it's awesome web service handling, which I use all the time, it's a slap in the face of AJAX development. It's bulky with hard to read source code that has an incredibly low usability.  It seems to be the opposite of the beauty of C# and .NET in general.  With those technologies, everything just falls together without ever needing to read a thing (assuming you are a qualified web professional who understands the foundational concepts of the system). Sure, you have to look up stuff in the docs, but you don't have to pour over book on the topic to be productive.  The same can be said for prototype and scriptaculous.

So, what is this thing? Actually are two frameworks, one, prototype, is a single JavaScript file and the other, scriptaculous, is a series of JavaScript files. Prototype is a foundational JavaScript framework that simplifies the existing client-side JavaScript API into something much more intuitive and that's also widely cross browser compatible. Finally! Cross browser compatibility without needing to support it!  That means we no longer have to do a zillion tests to see how we are supposed to get an element's height. I can just simply call $('box').getHeight( ) and be done with it! Prototype has classes (types) for Arrays (which including a very powerful each( ) function-- similar to .NET's ForEach method, Elements (which allows you to modify style, add classes, get ALL descendants -- not just the children), Events (instead of trying to test for addEventListener or attachEvent, just use Event.observe!), and classes for a ton of other things. To put it simply: prototype gives you a new client-side API. The source code is also incredibly each to read. It's just the same stuff most of us have already written, but now we don't have to support it.  If we build our applications on prototype, some one else has pre-tested a BUNCH of our system for us!

Scriptaculous is a different beast entirely. While prototype is a new general client-side API, scriptaculous goes more specifically into dynamics. For example, it allows you to turn a normal list into a sortable list with ONE line of JavaScript.  ONE.  Uno.  Eins.  It also allows you to Turn one div set into a series of draggable elements (products?) and another set of divs into containers that the items can go to (shopping carts?) There are also a very nice set of pre-built animations as well as other common things like an autocompleting textbox and an in-place editable label. These are I've normally built manually, but can use them without micro-managing code.  Code by subtraction RULES!  Scriptaculous is also VERY flexible. Everything you can do in scriptaculous is extremely customizable thanks to JavaScript's flexible dynamic object syntax and native higher-order function capabilities. That means, for example, that when you create a sortable list you can control exactly how it can scroll and set callback functions all in the same simple line of code. Also, note that scriptaculous uses prototype's API for it's lower-level functionality. This is why you will often see the two products named together, like the various books written on "prototype and scriptaculous".

What about some samples? Well, Prototype and Scriptaculous are both SO simple to work with I have absolutely no idea how someone can write a book on them. I go to various Borders bookstores about every day (it's my office), so I get to see many different books. When I flip through the prototype/scriptaculous books I get very confused. How can someone take hundreds of pages to write something that could be said in 20 or 30?  Verbosity sucks (yeah I know... look who's talking).  These framework are insultingly simple to work with.

Here are a few very quick samples.  For better samples, just download scriptaculous and view extremely well-documented prototype API online.

Prototype

Want to make a simple AJAX request?

new Ajax.Request('/service/', { 
  method: 'get', 
  onSuccess: function(t) { 
    alert(t.responseText); 
  }
}); 

No XmlHttpRequest object, no COM objects, nothing!

How about updating the content of an element?

Using this element...

<div id="myText"></div> 

...with this JavaScript...

$('myText').update('this is the new text'); 

... you get an updated element!  As you can see, it even uses the typical $ syntax (in addition to $$, $A, $F, $H, $R, and $w syntax!) Just look at the examples in the Prototype API to see more.  You will be shocked to see how easy it is to walk to DOM tree now.  You will also be amazed at how much easier arrays are to manipulate.

Script.aculo.us

Using this XHTML structure...

<ul id="greek">
<li>Alpha</li>
<li>Beta</li>
<li>Gamma</li>
<li>Delta</li>
</ul>

...with this SINGLE line of JavaScript...

Sortable.create('greek');

..., you have a sorting list (try that out-- you will also notice some nice spring-back animations happening too!)

Need callback when sort is completed? (well of course you do!)  Just give the <li> elements a patterned ID ('listid_count')... 
 

<ul id="greek">
<li id="greek_1">Alpha</li>
<li id="greek_2">Beta</li>
<li id="greek_3">Gamma</li>
<li id="greek_4">Delta</li>
</ul>

...and add a function callback and you're done.

Sortable.create('greek', {
  onUpdate: function( ){ 
    alert('something happened');
  } 
});

Ooooooooooooooo scary. IT'S THAT EASY! You don't need a book. Just use the docs and samples online.

Here's another one: want to move an item from one list to another?

Just use these elements...

<ul id="greek">
<li id="greek_1">Alpha</li>
<li id="greek_2">Beta</li>
<li id="greek_3">Gamma</li>
<li id="greek_4">Delta</li>
</ul>
<ul id="hebrew">
<li id="hebrew_1">Aleph</li>
<li id="hebrew_2">Bet</li>
<li id="hebrew_3">Gimmel</li>
<li id="hebrew_4">Dalet</li>
</ul> 

... with this JavaScript.

Sortable.create('greek', { containment: ['greek', 'hebrew'] });
Sortable.create('hebrew', { containment: ['greek', 'hebrew'] });

Want to save the entire state of a list?

var state = Sortable.serialize('greek');

Couple that with the simple prototype Ajax.Request call and you can very quickly save the state of your dynamic application.

Now close your jaw and stop drooling.  I haven't even shown the drag-n-drop, animations, or visual effects that Scriptaculous provides.  Also, get this: it's all FREE. Just go get it at the links below. Be sure to look over the docs a few times to get some more examples of the prototype functionality and scriptaculous usage. I've thrown out A LOT of my own code without looking back now that I have these amazing frameworks. This is good stuff.

AdvancED DOM Scripting Book

Oh, and as always... be very certain that you know your AJAX before you do this.  I know it goes without saying that you need to be a qualified professional to use powerful tools, but some amateurs and hobbyists (and men who get a hand crushed trying to fix the wash machine) think "Hey! This tool can do it for me! I don't need to know how it works!".  So, make sure you understand the three pillars of AJAX (AJAX Communication, Browser Dynamics, and Modern JavaScript) before you even bother with the powerful frameworks or else you will by flying blind.  Basically, if you can't recreate the Prototype framework (very easy to read code!), you shouldn't be using any JavaScript/AJAX framework.  If you aren't familiar with AJAX Communication, Browser Dynamics, or Modern JavaScript. Check out Jeffery Sambell's amazing book AdvancED DOM Scripting   It's an amazing guide covers all the prerequisites for AJAX development from service communication to DOM manipulation to CSS alteration.  It's amazing.  Even if you're an AJAX expert, buy this book!

Links