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NetFXHarmonics on CodePlex

Well, I finally broke down.  My public projects are now freely available for download on CodePlex.  Below is a list of the current projects on CodePlex

Here are the current projects on CodePlex:

As far as creating "releases", these are shared-source/open-source projects and in the model I'm following "releases" are always going to be obsolete.  Therefore, I will provide ZIP versions of the archived major revisions of a project and the current revision will always be available as source code.  The only exception to this may be DevServer, which I may do monthly releases or releases based upon major upgrades.  I'm currently working on new major revisions for a few other projects and when they are completed, I will then post them on to CodePlex as well.

As a reminder, my projects are always architected to follow the current best-practices and idiots for a particular technology and are therefore often fully re-architected based on the current technology.  The reason I do this is for the simple reason that my core specialty is training (technology or not) and that's the driving principle in my projects.  Therefore, on each of my projects there is a "As a Training Tool" section that will explain that projects technology and architecture as well as what else you might be able to learn from it.

As a final note, SVNBridge is working OK for me and has really helped me get over the CodePlex hurdle.  Scott Hanselman was kind enough to encourage me to try SVNBridge again.  I'm honesty glad I did.  The Team System 2008 Team Explorer client which integrated into Visual Studio works every now and again, but I got absolutely sick of everything locking up every time I would save a file.  Not even a check it!  A simple local save!  How people put up with "connected" version control systems is beyond me.  Do people not realize that Subversion does locking too?  Anyways, SVNBridge works great for both check outs and commits (we don't "check in" in the Subversion world-- we use transactional terminology).  If you want Visual Studio 2008 integration AND speed and power and flexibility with CodePlex, get VisualSVN.  It's an add-on for VS2008 that uses Tortoise behind the scenes.  With that, depending on my mood I can commit in both VS2008 (what I would do when working on refactoring or something) and in the Windows shell (what I would do when working with JavaScript files in the world's best JavaScript IDE: Notepad2).

NetFXHarmonics DevServer Released

Two months ago started work on a project to help me in my AJAX and SOA development.  What I basically needed was a development web server that allowed me to start up multiple web servers at once, monitor server traffic, and bind to specific IP interfaces.  Thus, the creation of NetFXHarmonics DevServer.  I built it completely for myself, but others started to ask for it as well.  When the demand for it became stronger, I realized that I needed to release the project on the web.  Normally I would host it myself, but given the interest from the .NET community, I thought I would put it on CodePlex.  I've only cried twice seen I've put it on CodePlex, but I'll survive.

NetFXHarmonics DevServer is a web server hosting environment built on WPF and WCF technologies that allows multiple instances of Cassini-like web servers to run in parallel. DevServer also includes tracing capabilities for monitoring requests and responses, request filtering, automatic ViewState and ControlState parsing, visually enhanced HTTP status codes, IP binding modes for both local-only as well as remote access, and easy to use XML configuration.

Using this development server, I am able to simultaneously start multiple web sites to very quickly view everything that happens over the wire and therefore easily debug JSON and SOAP messages flying back and forth between client and server and between services.  This tool have been a tremendous help for me in the past few months to discover exactly why my services are tripping out without having to enable WCF tracing.  It's also been a tremendous help in managing my own web development server instances for all my projects, each having 3-5 web sites (or segregated service endpoints) each.

Let me give you a quick run down of the various features in NetFXHarmonics DevServer with a little discussion of each feature's usage:

XML Configuration

NetFXHarmonics DevServer has various projects (and therefore assemblies) with the primary being DevServer.Client, the client application which houses the application's configuration.

In the app.config of DevServer.Client, you have a structure that looks something like the following:

<jampad.devServer>
</jampad.devServer>

This is where all your configuration lives and the various parts of this will be explained in their appropriate contexts in the discussions that follow.

Multiple Web Site Hosting

In side of the jampad.devServer configuration section in the app.config file, there is a branch called <servers /> which allows you to declare the various web servers you would like to load.  This is all that's required to configure servers.  Each server requires a friendly name, a port, a virtual path, and the physical path.  Given this information, DevServer will know how to load your particular servers.

<servers>
  <server key="SampleWS1" name="Sample Website 1" port="2001"
          virtualPath="/" physicalPath="C:\Project\DevServer\SampleWebsite1">
  </server>
  <server key="SampleWS2" name="Sample Website 2" disabled="true" port="2003"
          virtualPath="/" physicalPath="C:\Project\DevServer\SampleWebsite2">
  </server>
</servers>

If you want to disable a specific server from loading, use the "disabled" attribute.  All disabled servers will be completely skipped in the loading process.  On the other hand, if you would like to load a single server, you can actually do this from the command line by setting a server key on the <server /> element and by accessing it via a command line argument:

DevServer.Client.exe -serverKey:SampleWS1

In most scenarios you will probably want to load various sets of servers at once.  This is especially true in properly architected service-oriented solutions.  Thus, DevServer includes a concept of startup profiles.  Each profile will include links to a number of keyed servers.  You configure these startup profiles in the <startupProfiles /> section.

<startupProfiles activeProfile="Sample">
  <profile name="Sample">
    <server key="SampleWS1" />
    <server key="SampleWS2" />
  </profile>
</startupProfiles>

This configuration block lives parallel to the <servers /> block and the inclusion of servers should be fairly self-explanatory.  When DevServer starts it will load the profile in the "activeProfile" attribute.  If the activeProfile block is missing, it will be ignored.  If the activeProfile states a profile that does not exist, DevServer will not load.  When using a startup profile, the "disabled" attribute on each server instance is ignored.  That attribute is only for non-startup profile usage.  An activeProfile may also be set via command line:

DevServer.Client.exe -activeProfile:Sample

This will override any setting in the activeProfile attribute of <startupProfiles/>.  In fact, the "serverKey" command line argument overrides the activeProfile <startupProfiles /> attribute as well.  Therefore, the order of priority is is as follows: command line argument override profile configuration and profile configuration overrides the "disabled" attribute.

Most developers don't work on one project and with only client.  Or, even if they do, they surely have their own projects as well.  Therefore, you may have even more servers in your configuration:

<server key="ABCCorpMainWS" name="Main Website" port="7001"
        virtualPath="/" physicalPath="C:\Project\ABCCorp\Website">
</server>
<server key="ABCCorpKBService" name="KB Service" port="7003"
        virtualPath="/" physicalPath="C:\Project\ABCCorp\KnowledgeBaseService">
</server>
<server key="ABCCorpProductService" name="Product Service" port="7005"
        virtualPath="/" physicalPath="C:\Project\ABCCorp\ProductService">
</server>

These would be grouped together in their own profile with the activeProfile set to that profile.

<startupProfiles activeProfile="ABCCorp">
  <profile name="ABCCorp">
    <server key="ABCCorpMainWS" />
    <server key="ABCCorpKBService" />
    <server key="ABCCorpProductService" />
  </profile>
  <profile name="Sample">
    <server key="SampleWS1" />
    <server key="SampleWS2" />
  </profile>
</startupProfiles>

What about loading servers from different profiles?  Well, think about it... that's a different profile:

<startupProfiles activeProfile="ABCCorpWithSampleWS1">
  <profile name="ABCCorpWithSampleWS1">
    <server key="SampleWS1" />
    <server key="ABCCorpMainWS" />
    <server key="ABCCorpKBService" />
    <server key="ABCCorpProductService" />
  </profile>
</startupProfiles>

One of the original purposes of DevServer was to allow remote non-IIS access to development web sites.  Therefore, in DevServer you can use the <binding /> configuration element to set either "loopback" (or "localhost") to only allow access to your machine, "any" to allow web access from all addresses, or you can specific a specific IP address to bind the web server to a single IP address so that only systems with access to that IP on that interface can access the web site.

In the following example the first web site is only accessible by the local machine and the second is accessible by others.  This comes in handy for both testing in a virtual machine as well as quickly doing demos.  If your evil project manager (forgive the redundancy) wants to see something, bring the web site up on all interface and he can poke around from his desk and then have all his complains and irrational demands ready when he comes to your desk (maybe you want to keep this feature secret).

<server key="SampleWS1" name="Sample Website 1" port="2001"
        virtualPath="/" physicalPath="C:\Project\DevServer\SampleWebsite1">
  <binding address="loopback" />
</server>
<server key="SampleWS2" name="Sample Website 2" port="2003"
        virtualPath="/" physicalPath="C:\Project\DevServer\SampleWebsite2">
  <binding address="any" />
</server>

Web Site Settings

In addition to server configuration, there is also a bit of general configuration that apply to all instances.  As you can see from the following example, you can add default documents to the existing defaults and you can also setup content type mappings.  A few content types already exist, but you can override as the example shows.  In this example, where ".js" is normally sent as text/javascript, you can override it to go to "application/x-javascript" or to something else.

<webServer>
  <defaultDocuments>
    <add name="index.jsx" />
  </defaultDocuments>
  <contentTypeMappings>
    <add extension=".jsx" type="application/x-javascript" />
    <add extension=".js" type="application/x-javascript" override="true" />
  </contentTypeMappings>
</webServer>

Request/Response Tracing

One of the core features of DevServer is the ability to do tracing on the traffic in each server.  Tracing is enabled by adding a <requestTracing /> configuration element to a server and setting the "enabled" attribute to true.

<server key="SampleWS1" name="Sample Website 1" port="2001"
        virtualPath="/" physicalPath="C:\Project\DevServer\SampleWebsite1">
  <binding address="loopback" />
  <requestTracing enabled="true" enableVerboseTypeTracing="false" enableFaviconTracing="true" />
</server>

This will have request/response messages show up in DevServer which will allow you to view status code, date/time, URL, POST data (if any), response data, request headers, response headers, as well as parsed ViewState and Control state for both the request and response.  In addition, each entry is color coded based on it's status code.  Different colors will show for 301/302, 500+, and 404.

image

When working with the web, you don't always want to see every little thing that happens all the time.  Therefore, by default, you only trace common text specific file like HTML, CSS, JavaScript, JSON, XAML, Text, and SOAP and their content.  If you want to trace images and other things going across, then set "enableVerboseTypeTracing" to true.  However, since there is no need to see the big blob image data, the data of binary types are not sent to the trace viewer even with enableVerboseTypeTracing.  You can also toggle both tracing as well as verbose type tracing on each server as each is running.

There's also the ability to view custom content types without seeing all the images and extra types.  This is the purpose of the <allowedConntetTypes /> configuration block under <requestTracing />, which is parallel to <servers />.

<requestTracing>
  <allowedContentTypes>
    <add value="application/x-custom-type" />
  </allowedContentTypes>
</requestTracing>

In this case, responses of content-type "application/x-custom-type" are also traced without needing to turn on verbose type tracing.

However, there is another way to control this information.  If you want to see all requests, but want the runtime ability to see various content types, then you can use a client-side filter in the request/response list.  In the box immediately above the request/response list, you can type something like the following:

verb:POST;statuscode:200;file:css;contentType:text/css

Filtering will occur as you type, allowing you to find the particular request you are looking for.  The filter is NOT case sensitive.  You can also clear the request/response list with the clear button.  There is also the ability to copy/paste the particular headers that you want from the headers list by using typical SHIFT (for range) and CTRL-clicking (for single choosing).

Request/Response monitoring actually goes a bit further by automatically parsing both ViewState and ControlState for both request (POST) and response data.  Thanks goes to Fritz Onion for granting me permission to use his ViewState parser class in DevServer.

As a Training Tool

When announce any major project I always provide an "as a training tool" section to explain how the project can be used for personal training.  NetFXHarmonics DevServer is built using .NET 3.5 and relies heavily on LINQ and WCF with a WPF interface.  It also uses extensive .NET custom configuration for all server configuration.  In terms of LINQ, you can find many examples of how to use both query expression syntax and extension method syntax.  When people first learn LINQ, they think that LINQ is an O/R mapper.  Well, it's not (and probably shouldn't be usef for that in enterprise applications! there is only one enterprise class O/R mapper: LLBLGen Pro).  LINQ allows Language INtegrated Query in both C# and VB.  So, in DevServer, you will see heavy reliance on LINQ to search List<T> objects and also to transform LINQ database entities to WCF DTOs.

DevServer also relies heavily on WCF for all inner-process communication via named-pipes.  The web servers are actually hosted inside of a WCF service, thus segregating the web server loader from the client application in a very SOA friendly manner.  The client application loads the service and then acts as a client to the service calling on it to start, stop, and kill server instances.  WCF is also used to communicate the HTTP requests inside the web server back to the client, which is itself a WCF service to which the HTTP request is a client.  Therefore, DevServer is an example of how you can use WCF to communicate between AppDomains.

The entire interface in DevServer is a WPF application that relies heavy on WPF binding for all visual information.  All status information is in a collection to which WPF binds.  Not only that all, but all request/response information is also in a collection.  WPF simply binds to the data.  Using WPF, no eventhandling was required to say "on a click event, obtain SelectedIndex, pull data, then text these TextBox instances".  In WPF, you simply have normal every day data and WPF controls bind directly to that data being automatically updated via special interfaces (i.e INotifyPropertyChanged and INotifyCollectionChanged) or the special generic ObservableCollection<T>.

Since the bindings are completely automated, there also needs to be ways to "transform" data.  For example, in the TabItem header I have a little green or red icon showing the status of that particular web server instance.  There was no need to handle this manually.  There is already a property on my web server instance that has a status.  All I need to do is bind the image to my status enumeration and set a TypeConverter which transforms the enumeration value to a specific icon.  When the enumeration is set to Started, the icon is green, when it says "Stopped", the icon is red.  No events are required and the only code required for this scenario is the quick creation of a TypeConverter.

Therefore, DevServer is an example of WPF databinding.  I've heard people say that they are more into architecture and WCF and therefore have no interested in learning WPF.  This statement makes no sense.  If you don't want to mess with UI stuff, you need to learn WPF.  Instead of handing events all over the place and manually setting data, you can do whatever it is you do and have WPF just bind to your data.  When it comes to creating quick client applications, WPF is a much more productive platform than Windows Forms... or even the web!

Links

Squid Micro-Blogging Library for .NET 3.5

A few years ago I designed a system that would greatly ease data syndication, data aggregation, and reporting.  The first two components of the system were repackaged and release early last year under the incredibly horrible name "Data Feed Framework".  The idea behind the system was two fold.  The first concept was that you write a SQL statement and you immediately get a fully functional RSS feed with absolutely no more work required.  Here's an example of a DFF SQL statement that creates an RSS feed of SQL Server jobs:

select Id=0,
Title=name,
Description=description
from msdb.dbo.sysjobs
where enabled = 1

The second part of DFF was it's ASP.NET control named InfoBlock that would accept an RSS or ATOM feed and display it in a mini-reader window.  The two parts of DFF combine to create the following:

Given the following SQL statement (or more likely a stored procedure)...

select top 10
Id=pc.ContactID, 
Title=pc.FirstName + ' ' + pc.LastName + ': $' + convert(varchar(20), convert(numeric(10,2), sum(LineTotal))), 
Description='', 
LinkTemplate = '/ShowContactInformation/'
from Sales.SalesOrderDetail sod
inner join Sales.SalesOrderHeader soh on soh.SalesOrderID = sod.SalesOrderID
inner join Person.Contact pc on pc.ContactID = soh.SalesPersonID
group by pc.FirstName, pc.LastName, pc.ContactID
order by sum(LineTotal) desc

...we have an automatically updating RSS feed and when that RSS feed is given to an InfoBlock, you get the following:

image

InfoBlocks could be placed all over a web site or intranet to give quick and easy access to continually updating information.  The InfoBlock control would also register the feed with modern web browsers that had integrated RSS support.  Furthermore, since it was styled properly in CSS, there's no reason for it to be a block at all.  It could be a horizontal list, a DOM-based window, or even a ticker as CSS and modern AJAX techniques allow.

DFF relied on RSS.NET for syndication feed creation and both RSS.NET and Atom.NET for aggregation.  It also used LLBLGen Pro a bit to access the data from SQL Server.  As I've promised with all my projects, they will update as new technologies are publicly released.  Therefore, DFF has been completely updated for .NET 3.5 technologies including LINQ and WCF.

I've also decided to continue down my slippery slope of a change in product naming philosophy.  Whereas before I would follow the Microsoft marketing philosophy of "add more words to the title until it's so long to say that you require an acronym" to the more Linux or O'Reilly approaches of "choose a random weird sounding word and leave it be" and "pick a weird animal", respectively.  I've also been moving more towards the idea of picking a cool name and leaving it as is.  This is in contrast to Microsoft's idea of picking an awesome name and then changing it to an impossibly long name right before release (i.e. Sparkle, Acrylic, and Atlas)  Therefore, I decided to rename DFF to Squid.  I think this rivals my Dojr.NET and Prominax (to be released-- someday) projects as having the weirdest and most random name I've ever come up with.  I think it may have something to do with SQL and uhhhh.. something about a GUID.  Donno.

Squid follows the same everything as DFF, however the dependencies on RSS.NET and ATOM.NET were completely removed.  This was possible due to the awesome syndication support in WCF 3.5.  Also, all reliance on LLBLGen Pro was removed.  LLBLGen Pro (see my training video here) is an awesome system and is the only enterprise-class O/R mapping solution in existence.  NHibernate should not be considered enterprise-class and it's usability is almost through the floor.  Free in terms of up-front costs, does not mean free in terms of usability (something Linux geeks don't seem to get).  However, given that LINQ is built into .NET 3.5, I decided that all my shared and open-source projects should be using LINQ, not LLBLGen Pro.  The new LLBLGen Pro uses LINQ and when it's released, should absolutely be used as the primary solution for enterprise-class O/R mapping.

Let me explain a bit about the new syndication feature in WCF 3.5 and how it's used in Squid.  Creating a syndication feed in WCF is required a WCF endpoint just like everything else in WCF.  This endpoint will be part of a service and will have an address, binding, and contract.  Nothing fancy yet as the sweetness is in the details.  Here's part of the contract Squid uses for it's feed service (don't be jealous of the VS2008 theme -- see Scott Hanselman's post on VS2008 themes):

namespace Squid.Service
{
    [ServiceContract(Namespace = "http://www.netfxharmonics.com/services/squid/2008/03/")]
    public interface ISquidService
    {
        [OperationContract]
        [WebGet(UriTemplate = "GetFeedByTitle/")]
        Rss20FeedFormatter GetFeedByTitle(String title);

        //+ More code here
    }
}

Notice the WebGet attribute.  This is applied to signify that this will be part of a HTTP GET request.  This relates to the fact that we are using a new WCF 3.5 binding called the WebHttpBinding.  This is the same binding used by JSON and POX services.  There are actually a few new attributes, each of which provides it's own treasure chest (see later in this post when I mention a free chapter on the topic).  The WebGet attribute has an awesome property on it called UriTemplate that allows you to match parameters in the request URI to parameters in the WCF operation contract.  That's beyond cool.

The service implementation is extremely straight forward.  All you have to do is create a SyndicationFeed object, populate it with SyndicationItem objects and return it in the constructor of the Rss20FeedFormatter.  Here's a non-Squid example:

SyndicationFeed feed = new SyndicationFeed();
feed.Title = new TextSyndicationContent("My Title");
feed.Description = new TextSyndicationContent("My Desc");
List<SyndicationItem> items = new List<SyndicationItem>();
items.Add(new SyndicationItem()
{
    Title = new TextSyndicationContent("My Entry"),
    Summary = new TextSyndicationContent("My Summary"),
    PublishDate = new DateTimeOffset(DateTime.Now)
});
feed.Items = items;
//+
return new Rss20FeedFormatter(feed);

You may want to make note that you can create an RSS or ATOM feed directly from an SyndicationFeed instance using the SaveAsRss20 and SaveAsAtom10 methods.

As with any WCF service, you need a place to host it and you need to configure it.  To create a service, I simply throw down a FeedService.svc file with the following page directive (I'm really not trying to have the ugliest color scheme in the world-- it's just an added bonus):

<%@ ServiceHost Service="Squid.Service.SquidService" %>

The configuration is also fairly straight forward, all we have is our previously mentioned ending with an address(blank to use FeedService.svc directly), binding (WebHttpBinding), and contract(Squid.Service.ISquidService).  However, you also need to remember to add the WebHttp behavior or else nothing will work for you.

<system.serviceModel>
  <behaviors>
    <endpointBehaviors>
      <behavior name="FeedEndpointBehavior">
        <webHttp/>
      </behavior>
    </endpointBehaviors>
  </behaviors>
  <services>
    <service name="Squid.Service.SquidService">
      <endpoint address=""
                binding="webHttpBinding"
                contract="Squid.Service.ISquidService"
                behaviorConfiguration="FeedEndpointBehavior"/>
    </service>
  </services>
</system.serviceModel>

That's seriously all there is to it: write your contract, write your implementation, create a host, and set configuration.  In other words, creating a syndication feed in WCF is no different than creating a WsHttpBinding or NetTcpBinding service.  However, what about reading an RSS or ATOM feed? This is even simpler.

To read a feed all you have to do is create an XML reader with the data source of the feed and pass that off to the static Load method of the SyndicationFeed class.  This will return an instance of SyndicationFeed which you may iterate or, as I'm doing in Squid, transform with LINQ.  I actually liked how my server-control used an internal repeater instance and therefore wanted to continue to use it.  So, I kept my ITemplate object (RssListTemplate) the same and used the following LINQ to transform a SyndicationFeed to what my ITemplate what already using:

Object bindingSource = from entry in feed.Items
                       select new SimpleFeedEntry
                       {
                           DateTime = entry.PublishDate.DateTime,
                           Link = entry.Links.First().Uri.AbsoluteUri,
                           Text = entry.Content != null ? entry.Content.ToString() : entry.Summary.Text,
                           Title = entry.Title.Text
                       };

Thus, with .NET 3.5 I was able to remove RSS.NET and ATOM.NET completely from the project.  LINQ also, of course helped me with my database access and therefore remove my dependency on my LLBLGen Pro generated DAL:

using (DataContext db = new DataContext(Configuration.DatabaseConnectionString))
{
    var collection = from p in db.FeedCreations
                     where p.FeedCreationTitle == title
                     select p;
    //+ More code here
}

Thus, you can use Squid in your existing .NET 3.5 system with little impact to anything.  Squid is what I use in my Minima blog engine to provide the boxes of information in the sidebar.  I'm able to modify the data in the Snippet table in the Squid database to modify the content and order in my sidebar.  Of course I can also easily bring in RSS/ATOM content from the web with this as well.

You can get more information on the new web support in WCF 3.5 by reading the chapter "Programmable Web" (free chapter) in the book Essential WCF for .NET 3.5 (click to buy).  This is an amazing book that I highly recommend to all WCF users.

Links

March 2008 Web Technology Update

Recently a bunch of technologies have been released and/or updated and I would like to mention a few of them briefly.

First and foremost, Silverlight 2 Beta 1 has finally been released and you may download it immediately.  There is also an accompanying SDK.  You can find a nice development tutorial series on Scott Guthrie's blog.  If you are already familiar with WPF, you can just skim this entire series in less than 5 minutes.  Given that this technology isn't the same as the full WPF and given that it's designed for the web, there will obviously be differences.  It's important to remember that Silverlight 2 isn't simply WPF for the web.  I would call WPF 3.5's XBAP support for IE/Firefox "WPF for the web".  No, this is possibly the biggest web technology improvement since the release of Firefox 1.0, which in turn was the biggest technology release since the printing press.  Alight, alight... since .NET 1.1.  It's support for the dynamic language runtime is going to completely revolutionize our web development.

When reading through Scott's tutorial series (serious, at least skim it), it's interesting to note that Silverlight 2 allows cross-domain communication.  It does this by reusing the Flash communication policy files.  This is really awesome as it means that you can start accessing resources that Flash has been using for a while.  Being able to dynamically access resources from different domains is critical to the success of web architecture in the future.

Speaking of cross-domain communication, John Resig and I received a very depressing e-mail the other day telling us horrible news: cross-domain communication will probably be removed from Firefox 3 before it's official release.  Apparently a bunch of paranoid anti-architects were complaining about the dreaded evils of being able to access resources from different domains.  Um ok.  Fortunately, however, Firefox 3 has a feature called postMessage that allows you to get around this.  Malte Ubl has produced a library called xssinterface to demonstrate just this concept.  You could, of course, get around this completely with some iframe hacks or some other scripting magic.

Speaking of web browsers, I would like to bring people's attention to a technology that I've been following for some time now: Apple WebKit.  This is basically the brains inside Safari.  I absolutely love the Safari web browser.  It's by far and away the easiest web browser to use.  It also has the same keyboard short-cuts as Firefox, which is how I'm able to use it.  It's also incredibly fast, but I should mention that it uses even more memory than Firefox.  My last instance passed 500MB.  Given it's lack of an extension or configuration (i.e. about:config) system, it's obviously no where near the same caliber as Firefox though.  It is, however, my primary web browser as has been since October '07.

The reason I mention WebKit is because as very few people know, this is an open source project and has nightly binaries released on their webkit.org web site.  One of the most interesting thing about nightlies that you can actually watch the progress of development as time goes on.  About every month or so I like to get the latest Firefox nightly.  It's always interesting to see the major experiments that the developers try about 2 months after a major release of Firefox.  There's always some really awesome "teaser" feature in there that later grows into a fully grown technology.  The same can be said for WebKit.

None of that is, however, my primary reason for mentioning WebKit.  As, most web developers know, the Acid2 test has been the standard for checking a web browsers compatibility with the CSS standard.  I've been pushing this test for a long time, but I've never pushed it as the only test.  There are many things that a web browser must do and many features a web browser must have before it can be considered appropriate for use.  Merely focusing on CSS, while completely ignoring DOM support, JavaScript, and general user usability can lead a browser to be as impossible to use as Opera 9.

As I've said time and time again, I'm not a CSS specialist.  Part of the definition of being a professional web develop is that I have a solid understand of the inner workings of CSS including specificity, the various selectors, and how to merge absolute, floating, and relative position on the same elements, tasks "coders" see as nearly impossible to learn.  However, my focus is on AJAX interaction as seen from the JavaScript and DOM worlds.  Therefore, we need to have a test for browsers that goes beyond the simple Acid 2 test for CSS.  I'm not the only one thinking this way, because recently the Acid3 test was published and it tests CSS, JavaScript and DOM support.  This is the new standard for web browsers.

So far no web browser has even gotten close, with the lowest score from a web browser being 39% in Safari to the best score being 50% in Firefox 2.0.0.12.  However, in terms of non-released software, Firefox 3.0b3 has a score between 59% and 61%, depending on its mood (update: b4 is steady at 67%) and the latest WebKit nighty has a score is 90% (watch WebKit progress on Acid 3 at http://bugs.webkit.org/show_bug.cgi?id=17064).  That's phenomenal!  The newly released Internet Explorer 8 beta 1 has a score of 17%.  Those of you who have naively praising the IE team for being YEARS late on getting near the Acid 2 test need to wake up and realize this is 2008.  Time moves-- keep up.  Firefox has been close for the longest time and has always had the next-gen's next-gen JavaScript and DOM support, but has only recently completely passed the finish line of the Acid 2 test.  So, they are finally off my watch list there, but I will not stop bugging them until they pass the Acid 3 test.

For more information on the Acid 3 test, see John Resig's most entitled "Acid 3 tackes EMCAScript".  He's about as passionate as I am for web standards and Firefox and his blog is an invaluable resource for all things JavaScript.  His work is so good that I would like to take the time to plug his book he is currently writing: Secrets of the JavaScript Ninja.  I absolutely guarantee you that this book will redefine the entire world of JavaScript and will raise the bar incredibly out of the reach of "coders". To all of you coders who think you know JavaScript, do a view-source on the Acid 3 source code (you may want to bring a change of underwear with you).

Lastly, it's not necessarily a "new" technology, but it's so incredibly phenomenal that I need to mention it: Prototype 1.6.  It's amazing to me that people actually go out of their way to use ASP.NET AJAX 3.5 (I still find the ICallbackEventHandler interface more productive).  ASP.NET AJAX 3.5 is not nearly as bad as extremists think, but the design is still flawed.  Prototype on the other hand is absolutely incredible.  I've written about Prototype before, but this version 1.6 is even more powerful.  There a A LOT of changes from Prototype 1.5.  It's so good that I no longer call it "prototype/script.aculo.us".  Script.aculo.us is a great animation system, but, honestly, the main reason I used it was for the DOM abstraction in the Builder object.  Prototype now has an Element object to help create DOM objects, thus allowing me to remove Script.aculo.us from most of my projects (it's not as complete as the Builder object, but it allows object chaining-- which greatly increases code readability, conciseness and understanding!).  The Template object is also amazing as it gives you the ability to go far beyond simple String.Format formatting.  The new Class object for OOP is also great.  It's so much easier to use than Prototype 1.5.  Also, being able to hide all elements with a particular CSS pattern with one shot is very useful! (for example, $$('div span .cell-block').invoke('hide')).  It even allows you to use CSS 3 selectors on the most dead of web browsers.  It really makes developing for Internet Explorer 6 and 7 bearable!  Even if I have to use ASP.NET AJAX 3.5, I'll still including prototype.js.  If you do anything with JavaScript, you need Prototype!

 

Links

Comic Strip #2: .NET and PHP Source Code

Here's another conversations that I've had with various PHP programmers over the years.  Actually, this strip is a combination of three separate conversations wrapped up into one.  I think these conversations also give an accurate image of how the ignorant anti-Microsoft cult thinks.  Most of the time these people don't even know their own systems and often assume that since I'm a .NET programmer that I'm a complete fool.

.NET and PHP Source Code Comic Strip

Comic Strip: Enterprise .NET/PHP

Recently I ran across a really awesome web site called ToonDoo.  The web site basically allows you to create your own comic strips using a simple, yet feature rich Flash application.  Today I learned about a few other web sites that do something similar.  In light of the nonsensical anti-.NET drivel I hear constantly from ignorant outsiders, I thought I would put a few of my encounters into a few strips.  Here is the first...

Cwalina's Framework Engineering Lecture Posted

In my mind the single most important aspect of any system is usability.  Unless the context states otherwise, when I use the term "optimize" or "efficiency" I am always always talking about usability optimization and efficiency.  Things can be fast with a small footprint, but if you can't figure out how to use it right away or continually confuses your methods for your fields, then it doesn't really matter.  Fortunately, Microsoft agrees with this.  The days of every company writing their own coding-guidelines are gone and we .NET developers been unified under the great Framework Design Guidelines ("FDG") that Krzysztof Cwalina and Brad Abrams have so graciously given us.

To help further the unity in the community, Krzysztof recently posted a lecture on his blog entitled "Framework Engineering: Architecting, Designing, and Developing Reusable Libraries".  Here is the abstract of the lecture:

This session covers the main aspects of reusable library design: API design, architecture, and general framework engineering processes. Well-designed APIs are critical to the success of reusable libraries, but there are other aspects of framework development that are equally important, yet not widely covered in literature. Organizations creating reusable libraries often struggle with the process of managing dependencies, compatibility, and other design processes so critical to the success of modern frameworks. Come to this session and learn about how Microsoft creates its frameworks. The session is based on experiences from the development of the .NET Framework and Silverlight, and will cover processes Microsoft uses in the development of managed frameworks.

This video is, of course, not the only video on such an incredibly critical topic.  Many years ago, Brad Abrams (and friends) gave a lecture series to Microsoft employees on the topic of framework design guidelines.  These videos don't just cover the critically important topic of name guidelines, but also CLR performance topics, interopability guidelines, security topics, as well as various others.  It's a video series that's essential to serious .NET development.

More importantly then these videos though, is the classic work produced by Krzysztof and Brad entitled "Microsoft Framework Design Guidelines".  At the time of this writing, this book has 28 Amazon.com customer reviews and is still at five stars.  Look at a few of the review titles: "A must have for any C# Developer or Architect", "For the individual who wants to rise above the masses", "If you only ever buy one .NET book, make it this one", "AWESOME * 10 = MUST HAVE;" and my personal favorite: "Passionate About Quality?"  These reviews give you a good idea of the level of community acceptance that the framework design guidelines have.  One reviewer even said "I would pay $5 per page for this book, and have found it to be, by far, the most outstandingly useful technical book I've read."  This book covers in detail many of the aspects (and often times more) that have been covered in the videos.  In fact, the videos are actually on the DVD that comes with the book.

The book is also not simply a set of laws.  Throughout the book Microsoft architects and major Microsoft community leaders like Jeffery Richter make comments on various aspects of the framework.  Sometimes they explain why a rule is stated in a certain way and other times they emphasis how crucially important a rule is.  A few of the comments in the book explain problems in the .NET framework stemming from the fact that the guidelines were still in development (people used to say C# looked like Java-- well, many people used Java's nearly obfuscated coding standard!)  At one point in the book one of the authors explains a usability study for .NET streamed and right-out admitted what most of us already know: .NET streaming is extremely non-intuitive!

Many times I hear people say that the success of the .NET framework comes from it's extremely efficient garage collection model, it's flexible common language runtime (in contrast to Java's platform runtime) and it's powerful JIT model.  All those things are crucial, but ease of use is even more at the heart of .NET.  Abstraction in framework design can be defined as the increasing of the semantic value or usability of any entity and it's at this point where we can see .NET far outshine Java and PHP.  I've all but forgotten how to work with pointers, but it's when I forgot my coding standard that I'll start to become obsolete.  It's been said that the success of Windows was driven by the very open nature of the Win16/Win32 API.  Similarly, I highly suspect that it's the the beautiful abstraction with extremely high usability that explains .NET's sheer success.  There's only so much marketing can do; at some point a product has to stand on it's own (even then, Programmers can see though marketing!).  This beautiful abstraction and extremely high usability if course due to the existence and enforcement of the FDG.

To be clear, when I talk about FDG, I'm not simply talking about FXCop rules.  I typically break the .NET framework rules down into three levels: CLS-compliance, FXCop compliance, FDG compliance, and the iDesign standard.  If you do not strictly enforce CLS-compliance, then you may very well be completely stuck in the next version of .NET.  Who knows how non-Microsoft compilers will become.  FXCop will catch problems in your CLS-compliance and it will also catch many of the FDG violations as well.  The FDG rules, however, also cover various aspects of security and performance that only a human can check.  Lastly, when people often mention the FDG, many times what they really mean is the iDesign standard, edited by Microsoft Software Legend Juval Lowy.

In fact, I often use the terms "Framework Design Guidelines" and iDesign standard interchangeably.  They aren't the same thing, but in some contexts it's acceptable to mix them.  Whereas the FDG is primarily for the public interface of a framework, the iDesign standard covers both the public and internal.  The term "iDesign standard" may not be familiar to all, but what represents is.  It's been the .NET coding defacto standard since 2003.  In fact, when you crack open any APress, Wrox, or Sam Publishing book, you will probably be looking at code following the iDesign standard.  Further, the default settings for Visual Studio is the iDesign code layout. 

Every .NET developer knows it and just about everyone follows it.  Some may think the iDesign standard is optional and since it covers private code and in a sense it is optional, but, to be sure, if you are following the FDG rules and the iDesign standard, you have immediately chopped the learning curve of your system by an enormous factor.  Also, if you ever go public with your application (i.e. go open source), you will need to make sure you follow the FDG standard (which includes CLS and FXCop compliance) and the iDesign standard.  Otherwise, your system will probably have virtually no acceptance.

In closing, I should mention that Krzysztof Cwalina and Brad Abrams are releasing the 2nd edition of their famous book, due September 29, 2008.  You can, of course, pre-order on Amazon.  You can be sure that I will!

Links

Dojr.NET (Dojo RPC Library .NET 2.0)

In my overview of Dojo, I mentioned that Dojo provides a nice service abstraction layer in the form of dojo.rpc.  This is an absolutely astounding feature, yet it's so simple.  Instead of making all kinds of functions and setting up and XHR object, Dojo allows you to call server methods using a very simplified syntax.  The model should be familiar to anyone who has worked with SOAP services.  In these types of services, you are given a scheme and, depending on what client you are using, you can create a client-side proxy for all interaction with the service.  This is how the dojo.rpc feature works.  When you want to access a service, give Dojo the appropriate service metadata it needs to create a proxy and just call your service functions on the proxy.

Using dojo.rpc

In Dojo, this schema is called a Simple Method Description (SMD) and looks something like this.

var d = {
  'methods':
    [
      {
        'name':'getServerTime',
        'parameters':[
          {'name':'format'}
        ]
      },
      {
        'name':'getServerTimeStamp',
        'parameters' :[
        ]
      }
    ],
    'serviceType':'JSON-RPC',
    'serviceURL':'/json/time/'
}

With this SMD data, you create a proxy by getting and instance of the dojo.rpc.JsonService object setting the SMD in the constructor, like this:

var timeProxy = new dojo.rpc.JsonService(d);

From here you can call methods on the proxy and set a callback:

timeProxy.getServerTimeStamp( ).addCallback(function(r) { alert(r); });

Upon execution, this line will call the getServerTimeStamp method described in the SMD and route the output through the anonymous function set in the addCallback function.  If you would like, however, you can defer the callback by calling the service now and explicitly releasing the callback later.  In the following example, the first line calls the server immediately and the second releases the callback.

var deferred = timeProxy.getServerTimeStamp( );

deferred.addCallback(function(r) { alert(r); });

This is great, but what about the server?  As it turns out, Dojo, sends JSON to the service.  You can see this for yourself by taking at keep at the Request.InputStream stream in ASP.NET:

StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(Request.InputStream);
String data = reader.ReadToEnd( );

Below is the data that was in the stream.  As you can see, this is extremely simple.

{\"params\": [], \"method\": \"getServerTimeStamp\", \"id\": 1}
Providing Server Functionality

Since we are working in .NET, we have at our disposal many mechanisms that can help us deal with various formats, some of which that can really help simplify life.  As I explained in my XmlHttp Service Interop Series, providing communication between two different platforms isn't at all difficult, provided that you understand the wire format in between them.  In part 3 of that same series, I explained how you could use XML serialization to quickly and powerfully interop with any XML service, including semi-standard a SOAP service.  Furthermore, you aren't limited to XML.  Provided the right serializer, you can do the same with any wire format.  For our purposes here, we need a JSON serializer.  One of my favorites is the Json.NET framework.  However, to keep things simple and to help us focus more on the task at hand, I'm going to use the .NET 3.5 DataContractJsonSerializer object.  If you are working in a .NET 2.0 environment with a tyrannical boss who despises productivity, you should check out Json.NET (or get a new job).

To begin our interop, the first thing we need is a type that will represent this JSON message in the .NET world.  Based on what we saw in the ASP.NET Input Stream, this should be easy enough to build:

[DataContract]
public class DojoMessage
{
    [DataMember(Name = "params")]
    public String[] Params;

    [DataMember(Name = "method")]
    public String Method;

    [DataMember(Name = "id")]
    public Int32 Id = 0;
}

Having that class in place, we can now deserialize ASP.NET's InputStream into an instance of this class using out DataContractJsonSerializer:

DataContractJsonSerializer s = new DataContractJsonSerializer(typeof(DojoMessage));
DojoMessage o = (DojoMessage)s.ReadObject(stream);

That's it.  Now you have a strongly typed object where you can access the method and parameter information as you need.  From here's it shouldn't be too hard for anyone to use this information to figure out what to do on the server.  After all the logic is in place, the only thing we have left to do is to return the data, which isn't really that big deal at all.  The return data is basically plain text, but you can definitely send JSON back if you like.  If you would like to use JSON, you can even the DataContractJsonSerializer to serialize an object to the ASP.NET Request.OutputStream object:

Object r = GetSomething(o);
s.WriteObject(context.Response.OutputStream, r);

What about a more high-level approach that will allow me to simply write my core functionality without messing with mechanics?  Anyone using ASP.NET AJAX has this already in both their ASMX and WCF/JSON abstraction, but I wanted this functionality for Dojo (and for direct AJAX access).  My requirements were that I wanted to be able to define an attributed service, register it and move on.  Therefore, I build a Dojo RPC .NET 2.0 library called Dojr.NET (short for Dojo RPC, of course).  Dojr is probably the worst project name I've come up with to date, but it saves me from potential legal stuff from the Dojo Foundation.

Using Dojr.NET

To use Dojr.NET, create a class that inherits from DojoRpcServiceBase and apply attribute DojoOperationAttribute on each publicly exposed method.  Be sure to also set the dojo.rpc operation name in it's constructor, this is the name the Dojo client will see.  Since .NET uses PascalCased methods and JavaScript uses camelCased function, this is required.  Here is a complete sample class:

namespace NetFX.Web
{
    public class CalculatorService : DojoRpcServiceBase
    {
        [DojoOperation("add")]
        public Int32 Add(Int32 n1, Int32 n2) {
            return n1 + n2;
        }

        [DojoOperation("subtract")]
        public Int32 Subtract(Int32 n1, Int32 n2) {
            return n1 - n2;
        }
    }
}

After this, all you have to do is register the class as an HttpHandler in your web.config file.

<add verb="*" path="*/json/time/*" type="NetFX.Web.TimeService" />

At this point our Dojr.NET service is up and running, but how do we call it?  Actually, the same way you always do with dojo.rpc; nothing changes.  Believe it or not, this is a complete functional example:

var calcProxy = newdojo.rpc.JsonService('json/calc/?smd');
calcProxy.add(2, 3).addCallback(function(r) { alert(r); });
Automatic Service Method Description

But, how did the proxy obtain the required dojo.rpc metadata?  If you look closely at the address given to the proxy you will notice that it's suffixed with ?smd.  When a Dojr.NET service is suffixed with ?smd, it will automatically generate and return the service metadata.  This is similar to putting ?wsdl at the end of an ASMX URI.

Take a look at the metadata that's being automatically generated on the server via the ?smd suffix:

{
  "methods":[
    {
      "name":"add",
      "parameters":[
        {"name":"n1"},
        {"name":"n2"}
      ]
    },
    {
      "name":"subtract",
      "parameters":[
        {"name":"n1"},
        {"name":"n2"}
      ]
    }
  ],
  "serviceType":"JSON-RPC",
  "serviceURL":"http://localhost:3135/Dojo/json/calc/"
}

As you can see, Dojr.NET provides all the metadata required.  Literally all you have to do is inherit from DojoRpcServiceBase, apply the DojoOperationAttribute, and register the class to ASP.NET.  Everything else will be done for you.

Links

Dojo 1.0: Client-Side Web Development Framework

Recently I started a deeper study of the Dojo JavaScript Toolkit 1.0.  When I first got into Dojo, my reaction was something like "my goodness this is complicated", but then I woke up.  In reality, Dojo is not simply a JavaScript framework like prototype or an animation framework like script.aculo.us, but, rather, it's an entire client-side web development framework.  You can think of it as being a client-side version of the ASP.NET.  Because of this, I'm not going to compare it to prototype or script.aculo.us, products, which have completely different applications than Dojo.

Here is a simple break down of an example based on the hello world example found on the Dojo web site.  First let's add the dojo.js file:

<script src="dojoroot/dojo/dojo.js" djConfig="parseOnLoad: true" type="text/javascript"></script>

What in the WORLD is the djConfig attribute?  Well it's not in any XHTML DTD that's for sure.  This is something to tell Dojo to, obviously, parse the file on load.  Duh.  That's not really the fun part though.  Check this out, you actually use a PHP style "require" statement to load specific portions of Dojo:

<script type="text/javascript">
   dojo.require('dijit.form.Button');
</script> 

By doing this, now we can add the following control into our page structure:

<button dojoType="dijit.form.Button" id="hola">
  Hola Mundo!
  <script type="dojo/method" event="onClick">alert('Hola');</script>
</button>

This creates a simple button which alerts 'Hola' when clicked.  As you can see, it gives you a very nice declarative programming model.  I personally think this is incredible because 1) I believe that we should focus on web development from a client-side perspective and therefore create controls on the client, 2) I love declarative programming, 3) I don't want to build this thing myself.  With Dojo I get a declarative client-side programming model without having to architect the internals.  This is really awesome, since I'm a strong advocate of client-side perspective programming (a.k.a. web 2.0).

One interesting aspect of Dojo is that it loads only the files that you need for that specific page.  This is a rather nice compromise between the Prototype and mooTools methods.  Prototype loads the entire thing into memory and mooTools allows you to download each section you want.  Dojo, however, installs on the server as a set of files that are available for download and you retrieve them as you need them.  To add to this, you don't add them via the <script /> element, you add the dojo.js file that way, but you load the others by calling dojo.require( ).  What's nice about this is that you load modules, not files.  It also gives it a more native programming feel, but it also makes sure you don't load the same file twice.  Here's an example of what I'm talking about:

<script type="text/javascript">
  dojo.require('dojo.parser');
  dojo.require('dijit.form.Button');
  dojo.require('dijit.form.FilteringSelect');
  dojo.require('dijit.form.CheckBox');
</script>

Here you can see that I'm loading up four different modules.  What's interesting about this is that it's kind of similar to how we import .NET namespaces.  However, it's even more like how we load .NET assemblies.  Think of each one of these as being an assembly we need to reference.  In .NET, you add a reference, let fusion and it's buddies find and load the assemblies, and simply use the controls as if they were local; you don't care about "files".  This is very similar to the model presented in Dojo.  It's like you are adding a Dojo "assembly" reference, letting it load it for you, and you access it as it were local.  This is all in direct contrast to the model that PHP as well as most JavaScript/AJAX framework use.  In PHP and in these frameworks, you typically load "files" directly.  One of the hardest things for a PHP developer to do is make the mental transition from file files to "magically loading" .NET assemblies.  In .NET assembly names don't need to match their DLL names, in fact as assembly can span more than a single DLL file!  In the same way, Dojo's module names don't have a one-to-one module-to-file mapping and loads whatever physical files you need based on the logical name you request.  Very nice! The analogy isn't perfect and like I've already mentioned it's a bit like the .NET namespace import model as well.

Dojo contains a number of very nice controls as part of it's Dojo Widjet Library, also known as Dijit.  Many of these are controls that most of us have wanted for years, but just have never had the time to mess with.  For example, Dojo including a slider control, a dynamically expanding textarea, and a filtering select box.  There's a whole host of others, but these are the ones that I personally have wanted to see in a professional framework for a long time.  There's also a progress bar control and a dialog control for those of you who are into business apps.  Dojo actually provides a tooltip dialog control as well.  This control, as the name suggests, shows a dialog as a tooltip.  The only time ever seen a control like this used was on the Facebook login screen, specifically when you check "Remember me".  Another interesting thing related to controls is that Dojo gives you the ability to transform controls into a more beautified form.  It's able to do this because it ships with a few CSS files that give Dojo its initial look and feel.  Furthermore it also includes a number of themes.  You can see this in a few of the more basic demonstrations in the Dojo documentation.

Dojo also includes many layout controls including a split container, accordion, tab control and what is called a StackContainer.  This container shows a pane on the screen and gives you a next and previous button so you can go back and forth between panes.  There's also a rich text editor control.  That should get some people's attention right there.  As cool as that is though, I don't think anything beats the grid control.  The grid is like a combination of ASP.NET's GridView and WPF's Grid.  It allows databinding like GridView, but it also allows complex row and column adjustment like the Grid.  Technically it's not part of the core of Dojo, but it's incredibly amazing.  You can see a great example of a Grid with it's code, see this example.  The code for this Grid is so simple, that you probably won't even believe your eyes.  Even still, the author of that example writes about the example here.  The Grid really is one of the most powerful controls I've ever seen in a client or server technology.  Again, can you see how Dojo is like a client-side ASP.NET?

It should go without saying at this point, but Dojo also includes various validation controls.  You can actually put an <input /> element on the screen and set dojoType="dijit.form.DateTextBox" and you get an entirely new animal that loads a calendar control when you click in the textbox.  If you prefer to type the date out by hand, the field will be validated automatically.  You can also validate against money.  Look at this example from the Dojo documentation:

<input type="text" name="income1" value="54775.53"
  dojoType="dijit.form.CurrencyTextBox"
  required="true"
  constraints="{fractional:true}"
  currency="USD"
  invalidMessage="Invalid amount.  Include dollar sign, commas, and cents." />

That's seriously detailed.  The data is validated as the user types.  If you want to validate numbers that don't represent money, you can use the NumberTextBox Dojo control (also set via the dojoType attribute).  Or, if you want more powerful validation, use a ValidationTextbox and set the regExp attribute and validate directly against a regular expression.  Your regular expression doesn't have to be inline in the regExp attribute either.  Take a look at this example from the Dojo documentation:

<input type="text" name="zip" value="00000"
  dojoType="dijit.form.ValidationTextBox"
  regExpGen="checkForFiveDigitZipCode"
  required="true"
  invalidMessage="Zip codes after 5, county name before then." />

Here you can see that the JavaScript function (checkForFiveDigitZipCode) is called for validation.  To see these examples run and to see more information on validation in Dojo see the validation page in their documentation.

At this point I think I should mention something.  As many of you know, I'm a strong standards advocate and an extremely outspoken opponent of the mere existence of Internet Explorer.  Having said that, laws exist for a purpose and, frankly, only within the bounds of that purpose.  The purpose of standards are to give us a common ground and to help us have cleaner, more professional work (my "having higher web standards" thing I'm always talking about).  In terms of web browsers, each browser needs to continually keep up with the standards.  Why?  Obviously so web developers can ship out content and not want to change their career every single time they realize that browser X, Y, or Z doesn't support a specific feature.  With this in mind, there is absolutely nothing wrong with Dojo using custom attributes on types.  Dojo is requiring new functionality, but it's also providing that functionality at the same time.  That which is requires, it provides.  This is completely legal within the bounds of the purpose of standards.  So, there is no reason for anyone to start crying about Dojo adding custom attributes.  There was a time when I was a standards extremist (~2003), going so far as to even use a custom DTD on my pages where I would use custom attributes (set via JavaScript), but I've since realized that standard extremism is practically a cult and have ran from it.  Also, and you may want to sit down for this one, I think that Dojo holds nicely to semantic web principles.  Notice we aren't creating an input and procedurally making it do validation, rather, we are creating something that is a validation box.  It's not as semantic as a <validationtextbox /> would be, if it were to exist, but as with most things, semanticism (huh?) is a continuum.  If it weren't a continuum, <input type="hidden" /> shouldn't exist or ever be used (I would argue that this does in fact have some semantic value!)  Because of this, I don't see Dojo involving itself with the evils of pragmatism.  However, Dojo would be an evil pragmatic framework with little semantic structure, if it instead tried to setup some type of configuration system by setting class names.  Can you even imagine the chaos?  I've done this before as a standards extremist and it's really nasty.

Another thing that's insanely cool about Dojo is the event system.  As we ASP.NET developers know, events aren't simply things you use on visual controls.  No, you use events to notify entities of (...drum roll please...) events.  So, you could have multiple entities monitoring a centralized entity, perhaps a service and when that centralized entity sends out an update, all the other entities immediately receive the update.  It's the observer pattern, but you may know it as the publish/subscribe model.  Normally when you think of JavaScript events you think of events in terms of visual control events just as you would with ASP.NET.  With Dojo, however your event model gets an upgrade with a publisher/subscriber model.  Here's an example for you to ponder:

<script type="text/javascript">
  function Client (name) {
    this._name = name;
    
    dojo.subscribe('update', this, update);
    
    function update(args) {
      console.debug(this._name + ': ' + args);
    }
  }
        
  var Server = {
    sendUpdates: function(message) {
      dojo.publish('update', [message]);
    }
  };
  
  var clientA = new Client('Client A');
  var clientB = new Client('Client B');
  
  Server.sendUpdates('event occured!');
</script>

One thing on which I would like to warn all my .NET colleagues is this: they use Java terminology.  They fire their events whereas we like our events and think they are doing a great job so we raise them.  Personally, I've never understood that terminology, especially in systems like the web that allow for event bubbling where events are RAISED to the top.  OK, enough rant.  Before moving on though, just think about what I keep mentioning : this is like a fully fledged client-side ASP.NET.  You must surely be noticing that by now.

Dojo, of course, also gives you a XMLHttpRequest abstraction layer so that you don't need to mess with all that browser detection nonsense.  The syntax is rather similar to prototype's very intuitive syntax.  This is fortunate, because not all frameworks have a nice abstraction layer.  I've given up on trying to figure out mooTool's abstraction layer a long time ago.  It's doable, but the complexity curve is very steep.  In Dojo, however, the complexity curve is relatively flat, like prototype's.  Here's an example based on a Dojo documentation example of a simple XHR call (if you like, you can set 'json' instead of 'text' in the handleAs).  This code isn't anything fancy, but that's kind of my point:

<script type="text/javascript">
dojo.xhrGet({
  url: '/file/1.txt',
  handleAs: 'text',
  timeout: 3000,
  load: function(response, ioArgs) {
    alert(response);
    return response;
  },
  error: function(response, ioArgs) {
    console.error('Status code: ', ioArgs.xhr.status);
    return response;
  }
});
</script>

As simple as this is though, you can do much more with Dojo's abstraction layer than what I've seen in any other framework.  For example, there's actually a dojo.io.iframe object to give you the ability to do iframe-based AJAX.  Dojo also includes the dojo.rpc object, which allows for incredibly poweful RPC calls.  Gone are the days of having to choose to either create your own end-to-end communication or to completely use a flawed product.  You now have a nice middle ground for your AJAX service access. In a sense it's kind of similar to .NET remoting, in how it's not SOAP, but it's not quite sockets either.  The dojo.rpc concept is amazing quite possibly my favorite Dojo feature.  You can expect me to write more about this feature in the future.  I'm been completely taken in by this incredible feature and can see an incredible number of applications for it.  If you want to see something else wildly awesome, check out the dojo.data data access layer.  The documentation needs to be developed a bit more, but it's wild.  Whereas dojo.rpc may be similar to .NET remoting, dojo.data is kind of like WCF binding.  You just connect to a built-in or custom data store and your can bind Dojo controls directly to it!  Bind directly to your Flicker.com datastore or write your own.  For a few good examples of using this feature, check out this blog entry.

There are also features which we would kind of expect from a client-side framework like drag-n-drop support, animation support (though barely documented-- here's a PDF of an example), and DOM node selection (see dojo.query).  It also gives you control over internationalization (and unicode encoding) and the power to handle the back button in AJAX applications (of course by using the # syntax).  There's also the ability to create object-oriented class with inheritance.  One downside to this feature is that Dojo went back to the days of C++ and impossibly complex object graphing by allowing multiple inheritance.  You may want to set a corporate guideline to stop people from doing this, lest your object graphs become completely unreadable.  In any case, you also have an abstraction for arrays (to help emulate JavaScript 1.6), cookies, strings and dates.  You are also provided a mechanism for converting the data of an entire form into JSON data.

As if that weren't enough, Dojo also provides a unit testing framework called D.O.H.  You can do anything from simple asserts to full test cases, including grouping test cases.  In addition to the unit testing, Dojo allows you to send informational and debug messages to the Firebug console.  The documentation is packed with more testing samples than you will know what to do with.  Most of them are for testing the Dojo framework, but these tests use D.O.H. and give you a world of insight into the variety of things you can do with Dojo.

As far as documentation, there is more documentation for Dojo than I have seen in all the other JavaScript/AJAX frameworks combined.  The online "Book of Dojo" is incredibly long.  In fact, some may say that it's too long.  The Dojo people thought of this though and allow you to quickly get ROI from their "Dojo for the Attention-Impaired".  This page demonstrates the basic idea behind Dojo by showing a quick Hello World example.  I would recommend you do skim through this page, do the demo, then skim through the rest of the book, doing demos as you go.  One thing I should mention about the documentation is that while there is a lot of it, it's very hard to read at times.  I had to read the event system documentation numerous times before I was able to get anything from it.  This is definitely something the Dojo guys should look into.

Another thing they should look into is their use of double quotes in their JavaScript documentation.  This is something most ASP.NET AJAX books do and it really makes the code hard to read and hard to manage (do you really want to escape every single double quote in your HTML controls? ouch!)  It's makes about as much sense as using double quotes in your T-SQL code (which, yeah, would require a setting, but that's my point-- it's lame).  The Dojo documentation seems to go between various authors who either respect for the JavaScript guidelines (') or who don't even realize it exists (").  To make things worst, at times they use single quotes in their HTML!  There doesn't seem to be any consistency here.  I'm glad they didn't try to mix their code with any type of server-side work.  I don't even want to try to read double-quotes JavaScript in the midst of PHP, Java, or C# code.  That would e painful to read.  Other than these two concerns, the documentation was fairly exhaustive.  Some developers, however prefer to learn by seeing.  If you're one of those, you can check out the official Dojo demos.

In terms of deployment, you actually don't even need to install Dojo.  It's on the AOL Content Delivery Network (CDN), so you can quickly just include the Dojo entry file from their server and be done with it.  If you really want to download it to your system, you can hit up the Dojo web site and download it from there.  You could also head on over the the Dojo web site that parodies the script.aculo.us web site: dojo.moj.oe.  Also, remember that everything you need is accessible from the single Dojo entry file (often dojo.js) and that you use dojo.require( ) statements to bring in functionality at a module level, not a file level.  Therefore, the AOL CDN method should be perfect for most people.

Dojo is currently in version 1.0, however, this is an open source 1.0, not a Microsoft 1.0.  When Microsoft has an alpha, it's a preview.  When they have a beta 1, it's pretty nice.  When they have a beta 2, I'm usually using it in production.  When it's RTM as v1.0, everything breaks and I end up removing it.  Google products as well as Firefox and Dojo on the other hand are hardcore and stable when they hit 1.0.  Their idea of 1.0 is like Microsoft's idea of an SP2.  Shall I remind everyone that Gmail is STILL marked as beta after all these years??  Dojo is a stable system that have been in development and testing for an extremely long time.

Dojo really is a fascinating client-side web development framework which can bring great elegance as well as a great declarative programming model to your AJAX applications.  Furthermore, given it's rich set of controls, Dojo is absolutely perfect for web-based business applications.  Dojo is also probably one of the great technologies of all time that are destined for completely misunderstanding as a product comparable and/or equal with products that don't even come close to it.  There are people living today that still try to compare Internet Explorer with Firefox, VSS with Subversion, Gimp with Photoshop (oh yes, I went there!), the Zune (which is a media player) with the iPod Touch (which is an Internet device)and Gmail with Yahoo! Mail or Hotmail.  Compare them and you will see there is no comparison.  As I said at the beginning, this neither replaces prototype or script.aculo.us, which would be used in more minimal environments.  Dojo is a different framework to be used when a project has different requirements.  Besides, you should never choose one tool as your end all be all for everything.  That's a naive way of thinking, unless you actually think it wise to cut your bread with a butter knife or spread your butter with a bread knife.  Rarely are things in life one-side-fits-all.  Frameworks are free; use them, but use them wisely.  Hopefully many of you will seriously consider using Dojo in your current or future AJAX and ASP.NET projects.

Links

Developers and Web Developers

(This is a sequel to my Coders and Professional Programmers article)

I'm fairly sure the year was 2001. It was before I did my transition from coder to professional, but it was long after I became a real web developer (1994).  This was the year that the web became severely corrupted by an influx of thousands of MFC/VB developers thinking they were web developers simply because they knew how to drag-n-drop a control onto a canvas and make something appear in a web browser. The influx was, of course, due to the release of ASP.NET. These people were not web developers and that same coder-mill continually throws out unprofessional after unprofessional today.  This was the year I got so upset with the pragmatic, unprofessional web developers running around taking my work that I retired for 3 years to go back to college.

So, what is a web developer?  Surely is at least one definition per person in the entire industry, but I must say that, at root, it's a person who understands and can proficiently interaction with web technologies.  What web technologies?  Today, these include, at a minimum, semantic XHTML, CSS, and Modern JavaScript.  In a sense, you could easily mark these as the pillars of web programming.  Without academic and hands-on knowledge of these technologies, there is no web devolvement (yes, both are required-- and despite what the pragmatists think, the former is critical). Furthermore, this technology list changes over time.  If I were to retire today, I have no right to come back in 5 years claiming to be a web developers.  To be a web developer at that time, I need to learn a new X, Y, and Z in including their guidelines and best practices.  You must keep up or be left behind.

Having said that, PHP, JSP, and ASP.NET developers often inappropriately call themselves web developers.  Not all PHP, JSP, or ASP.NET developers are like this, especially PHP developers! Respect, respect!  In any case, I can kind of see the confusion here, but even still, a quick realization of what these technologies are should have killed any thoughts of this a long time ago.  These people work with server-side technologies, not web technologies.  The same CGI model used 15 years ago is the same model today.  The only thing these people are doing is creating code that runs on a server and shipping the output.  Period.  That's not web development; this is the same work you would do if you were to build an Excel report.  It’s just work behind the scenes that may or may not touch a web browser.  Even then, just because it hit a web browser, doesn’t mean its web development.  There’s no client-side technologies involved at all. Without deeply interacting with client-side technologies, there is no web development.  In fact, the inanimate object known as a web server is more of a web development than server-side-only people.

Web development begins at the point when you begin to ponder the technologies and implementation from the perspective of the client-side.  I'm sure most people won't believe me when I say this, but I did web development for my 4 years of high school before I even knew that you could use server-side software to dynamically create pages.  Everything I did was in pure JavaScript and fancy frame manipulation.  This was web development.  I didn't need CGI or Perl.  PHP, JSP, and ASP.NET simply sends out a stream and it just so happens that a web browser may be the one making the request.  The output may be for a web browser, but that in absolutely no way makes it web development.  That's like going to a foreign country and using a translator device and saying because you have that device, you speak the language.  You in absolutely no way speak the language!  Worst, some people will defend, virtually to the death, the idea that they do speak the language simply because they know a few words to "fix" the translation!  We see this in server-side-only developers who, because they know a few HTML tags, think they know the technologies.

Most of the time, however, server-side-only developers really think they are web developers. So, this simple and obvious explanation won't do.  Therefore, we are forced to make a distinction between web 1.0 and web 2.0 developers.  We often think of web 2.0 as being quick, dynamic, and smooth client-side dynamics.  This is from a marketing perspective, but it's hardly a definition that satisfies the computer scientist.  The distinction I use is actually a bit more straightforward: web 2.0 development is development from the client-side perspective.  This definition actually reminds me of the definition of a series I learned in my Real Analysis class in college: a mapping from N to R.  How in the WORLD is that a series!? Isn't a series a set of entities or something?  Well, somehow it's a mapping from N to R (I've yet to hear another professor give this same definition, but the point is that "formal definitions" in mathematics rarely look like their application in reality).

When I talk about web 2.0 to a colleague or a client I'm talking about web-specific design and implementation from the perspective of the client. From this perspective calls are made to various services for interaction with outside data.  In other words, web 2.0 is a client-service model for the web.  In this sense, what is web 1.0?  Just the opposite: development from the server-side perspective.  This is ASP.NET development, for example.  When you are working with ASP.NET, you are working from the perspective of the server and you send data out.  In this model, you have a logically central system with entities accessing it. In reality, this isn’t web development—it’s development of something that may or may not do web development for you. Web 1.0 is a server-client model for the web (notice the word server, instead of service—as seen in the web 2.0 model)  If you are a deep Microsoft developer you recognize the web 2.0 paradigm: WPF/WCF allows you to easy create a client-service model bypassing the client-server model all together.  You create your client interfaces in WPF and access WCF servers as you need them.

In this perspective, what does this mean in terms of the actual technologies?  Well, almost all my web applications are done using the web 2.0 model.  That is, all my programming is done from the perspective of being inside the web browser.  I'll directly modify the DOM and access data via AJAX calls as required.  Some of my applications are pure-AJAX. That is, not single postback in the entire system (like meebo.com-- meebo is a prime example of a web 2.0; everything is from the perspective of the client with communication via AJAX services.)  In fact, my controls are very Google-ish.  Google is also deep into this model.  See their AdSense, AdWords, or Analytics controls; insert a declarative script and it does the rest from the perspective of the client.  As you can see here, you don't even need the XHR object for web 2.0!

What does ASP.NET AJAX bring?  In this model, ASP.NET AJAX is as web 1.0 technology that gives you the dynamics of web 2.0.  This was actual the entire point behind creating it.  Web 1.0 developers (who are often not web developers at all!) can use their existing server-side perspective and paradigms to implement dynamics on the remote system (in a web 1.0 model the client is the remote entity-- whereas in web 2.0 the services are remote).  ASP.NET AJAX very much allows for a web 2.0 model, but that's not how it's primarily marketed.  As a side note, I should mention that, this model for explaining web 1.0 and 2.0 is only a logical representation and therefore can not be right nor can it be wrong.  The fancy marketing representation kind of works too, but it's often too abstract to have real meaning.

Personally, I think the web 1.0 model of development is counterproductive and encourages sloppy priorities.  The user experience is the point of the system. Without that, the entire point of the web site is dead.  One of my problems with ASP.NET AJAX is how it's marketed.  The server-perspective model of development encourages development that seems backwards.  Furthermore, because of this, the aforementioned so-called "web developers" continue to spread their disease of pragmatism all over the world further aiding in the disintegration of quality.  As I've originally stated, most of these people don't understand even the basics of semantic XHTML, which is the single most fundamental aspect of web development, which can be seen in their use of div-soup or <br/> mania.  These people may be awesome server-side professionals putting my enterprise architecture skills to absolute shame and run circles around me in just about any algorithm or design pattern implementation, but they are only coders when it comes to the web.

After years and years of dealing with people like this, I've come to notice a few signs of web 1.0 coders:

  • If someone says "Firefox?  How's that better than IE?", it goes without saying that this person not only hasn't the first clue about web development, they don't even understand the tool which represents the core purpose of web development: the web browser.  People like this are almost always helpless.  You could try to explain the true power of CSS, the fact that SVG, HTML5, and Canvases are in every web browser except IE, or talk about how Firefox has the architecture of an operating system with its console, it's own registry (about:config), as well as the ability to install apps (extensions), but you're probably only going to get the same pragmatic blank stare of a coder. Fortunately, I haven’t heard say this in at least 3 years.
  • If someone says "I know CSS, here..." and shows you how they used font-size, color, and font-weight on a few elements contained in a table embedded in a table embedded in yet another table, then you have your work cut out for you, because you met a person who thinks HTML is the latest cool technology on the block and hasn't the first clue what CSS really means.  As I've stated in my article "CSS Architecture", CSS is not just a styling technology.  Furthermore, we web 2.0 developers realize that CSS is to be used in harmony with semantic XHTML and therefore understand the dangers of using a table.  These people obviously don't.  Of course, the minute their boss asks for mobile support, they come running to you because they now realize "DOH! Tables are too wide! AHH! Tables make the page size too big!" They will have to learn their lesson eventually.
  • If someone says "I know JavaScript, here... " and they show you a validation function, then you need to explain to them that JavaScript isn't merely a scripting language, but is rather a very powerful object-oriented/functional programming language which often puts strongly-typed languages to shame.  It includes closures, namespaces, an extremely rich object system, object-oriented access levels, multi cast events, and a boat load of core JavaScript objects.  Yet web 1.0 developers haven't the first clue. This problem isn’t nearly as bad as it used to be, though. MSDN magazine devoted some time to the topic in the May 2007 issue and the number of JavaScript experts in the Microsoft community is growing very rapidly.
  • If someone says "Hmm... I don't see the control you are talking about in my toolbox", then you know you are dealing with a coder.  Not only that, you're probably dealing with a person who has never, ever learned what semantic development even is.  Typically people like this will use the dead concept of a WYSIWYG designer to drag-n-drop controls and set properties with their mouse.  Clearly, these people focus more on how something seems to look at the moment, not how the page is actually built.  Pragmatists.  Personally, I’ve never designer support into anything, ever. If you can’t program it, don’t develop it! I personally find it extremely unprofessional to even allow designer-support. The target audience typically has absolutely no concept of the difference between a semantic <h1></h1> and a pragmatic <div id="myHeader"></div>.  Not only will their code cause problems down the road, your code will never integrate with it, which, of course, means you will be rewriting everything. Anyone who understands the importance of semantic XHTML understands the sheer severity of this problem.  You will break a page's structure by relying on a designer.  A designer should only be used by a professional who knows how to fix it's flaws.  Since only a professional would be able to fix the flaws, it follows that only a professional should do web development.  Duh?  For more information on semantic XHTML, see any modern web 2.0 book or my mini-article here (a quick note-- when I was formatting this post in WLW, every one of my list items would start a new list-- if I didn't understand semantic XHTML, I would have been completely stuck [also notice I'm using the semantic term "list item" not the syntactical term "<li />"-- focus on what things ARE, not what they DO-- try focusing on what something IS using a WYDIWYG designer!])

I know I've written about this topic before, but it's is just such a critically important topic.  Just because someone does something, that doesn't mean they are in that profession.  I change my own oil and change my tires, but this doesn't make me a mechanic.  A few months ago I was talking to a guy who actually said that he doesn't care about what he produces, because "it's just a job".  Just a job!?  Why don't you just get another one!  These people need to stop masquerading as web developers, stop undercutting my professional company by offering $3.75/hour unprofessional "development", start upping their own standards and start showing a little respect to us that were here first.  To a lot of us professionals this isn’t just a “job”; it’s actually become part of us! Unfortunately, I've learned years ago that people don't change.  Not for their marriage, not for their family, and especially not for their careers.  It's hopeless.  Moving on.